Philosophy has five major branches metaphysis, epistemology, ethics, aesthetics, and logic. [19], It is plain, that in the course of our thinking, and in the constant revolution of our ideas, our imagination runs easily from one idea to any other that resembles it, and that this quality alone is to the fancy a sufficient bond and association. Eastern philosophy is the philosophies of the eastern continents. [citation needed], The spiritual goal of many traditions involves the dissolving of the ego, in contrast to the essential Self,[24] allowing self-knowledge of one's own true nature to become experienced and enacted in the world. Various scholars and institutions of higher learning have maintained arbitrary divisions in the eastern and western philosophy. There is no division between eastern or western philosophy … "[3] The case is the same for the seers of Upanishads, who maintained that the ultimate real knowledge involves an understanding of the essence of the self and the nature of God. --The rational investigation of the truths and principles of being, knowledge, or conduct based on logical reasoning rather than empirical methods. The Self in Ancient Philosophy 203 For us to avoid being fooled by those learned person, it removes or takes away doubts, it turns life to be simple and flexible... ... [citation needed], Both Western and Eastern civilizations have been occupied with self-knowledge and underscored its importance particularly citing the paradoxical combination of immediate availability and profound obscurity involved in its pursuit. -- The term philosophy itself comes from the Greek philosophia, which means love of wisdom. They both laid the groundwork for the now United Nations. Siddhartha was a great figure because one day on a trip to the city, he discovered that many people with in the city were suffering. 1992. Lao Tzu, in his Tao Te Ching, says "Knowing others is wisdom. [citation needed], To another person, the self of one individual is exhibited in the conduct and discourse of that individual. November 03, 2014 East Asian Philosophy includes Confucianism, which is a complex system of moral, social, political, philosophical, and quasi-religious thought that has had tremendous influence on the culture and history of East Asia[1], Taoism which refers to a variety of related philosophical and religious traditions that have influenced Eastern Asia[2], Shinto which is the indigenous religion of Japan[3], Legalism which was one of the main philosophic currents during the Warring States Period[4], and Maoism, which is officially known as Mao Zedong... ...PHILOSOPHY Whether it is physical or none physical components it all leads to the idea of coming into fruition with the self. Although some Eastern conceptions of the self, most notably those derived from Hinduism, which center on the Vedic notion of the atman or soul, are similar to Western ideas of the self, Buddhist psychology provides a radically different interpretation. Therefore, this makes it hard to easily try and convince someone out of his or her faith (Smith, 2008). The subject of philosophy has always been divided along two lines of thinking – the eastern and the western. Many postmodern philosophers believe the only variant of Eastern and Western philosophy is that of Geographic’s however some scholars will disagree that it is not geographical but of natural language and investigated thinking. One of the greatest philosophers from the eastern school of philosophy, Confucius was a just and righteous man, who adhered to ancient Chinese customs, ideals and conformed to the principles pre-laid by ancient sages. Although we have changed in many respects, the same person appears present as was present then. This variety explains the title - Perspectives on the Self. Each of these branches plays a role with culture to develop thoughts in human beings by wondering, a dynamic process, the truth, and wisdom. The first quotation that I would like to discuss is Buddhism: Siddhartha Gautama. Poetic thought, the intelligent Universe, and the mystery of self: The Tantric synthesis of rDzogs Chen in fourteenth century Tibet. The Main Principles of Eastern Philosophy are: Cosmological Unity Life is a journey towards eternal realities that are beyond the realities that surround us Inner-world dependent Self-Liberation Behavioural Ethics The Main Principles of Western Philosophy are: Feeling oneself as an element of the Divine Life is service (to God, money etc) He believed if the emperor lead his subjects by leading an exemplary life, his subjects would follow and the state would be harmonious and prosper. However, the way it has gone about this has been intriguingly different. A comparison between David Hume and the Buddhist concept of personal identity in which both philosophical theories deny the existence of an underlying self. Mastering others requires force. Mastering others requires force. Please join StudyMode to read the full document. Ancient Eastern Philosophy On the Ancient Wisdom of Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism & Confucianism. If there is some other thing which makes it one, this other is rather the soul. Identify A Decision About Which Reasonable Minds Can Disagree A true believer who stands by his faith will never allow himself to accept defeat in argument even when they know that they may be wrong in some way (Watson, 2013). Lao Tzu, in his Tao Te Ching, says "Knowing others is wisdom. Philosophy Eastern philosophy, on the other hand, has given a lot of thought to war, combat, and conflict. Moreover, eastern ideas on the self emphasize the greater good, intuition, experiences and personal relationships. This paper aims to examine the ideas of one eastern and one western philosopher – Confucius and Socrates respectively and compare the two for similarities and differences. There are many branches of eastern philosophy. In a Platonic tradition, concepts were seen to entail universals, applying always and for ever. In addition, society always plays a major role in forming the faith of many. Knowing the self is enlightenment. The particular characteristics of the self determine its identity. One would then have to ask, concerning this other, whether it be one or of many parts. Hume, however, denies that there is a distinction between the various features of a person and the mysterious self that supposedly bears those features. He argues that, in this scenario, one would still have self-consciousness. It explores how to reach inner peace and our relationship with nature and the wider cosmos. Unlike Plato and the religious traditions, Aristotle did n… In the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide recognized by Lemkin 19 articles, clarify the guidelines as to... ... Most philosophical definitions of self—per Descartes, Locke, Hume, and William James—are expressed in the first person. This is an example of the middle way charted by the Buddha and the Madhyamaka school of Buddhism. When we start introspecting, "we are never intimately conscious of anything but a particular perception; man is a bundle or collection of different perceptions which succeed one another with an inconceivable rapidity and are in perpetual flux and movement". Philosophy plays a huge role in all of our lives. Philosophy: The Self-Destructive West and the Stillness of the East ... developed through my experiences studying Western Philosophy at a Canadian University and studying Eastern Philosophy on … "[29], Defines, among other things, the conditions of identity that make one subject of experience distinct from all others, Self as an indispensable syntactic construct, not an entity. She was the wife of former United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt By August of 1945, Lemkin and Roosevelt have both witnessed two world wars. “Philosophy is an attempt to reason clearly and critically about all areas of experience: science, religion, art, politics, and mortality” (What is Philosophy, Para, 1). As we grow up, we gradually establish our own worldview. Can similarities be found in western philosophy with the eastern concept of self (no-self) in Buddhism? The ego is often associated with mind and the sense of time, which compulsively thinks in order to be assured of its future existence, rather than simply knowing its own self and the present. Selves are not physically detectable. [15] Aristotle used his concept of the soul in many of his works; his main work on the subject is De Anima (On the Soul).[16][14]. Martial arts are just one product of that and self-defense is a central aspect of them. What we think of as our self, the "me" that inhabits our body, is just an ephemeral experience. Raphael Lemkin and Eleanor Roosevelt are two very essential people in our history. 16. Eastern religions have not spent as much time as western philosopher questioning the nature of God and his role in the creation of mankind. Both western and eastern philosophy has lots of simliarities too. To truly know who you are and where you are going you must truly know thy self. Most people are stubborn about what they believe in because it is all they have known their entire lives and based their entire being on. Since the beginning of Buddhist philosophy, several schools of interpretation assumed that a self cannot be identified with the transient aggregates, as they are non-self, but some traditions questioned further whether there can be an unchanging ground which defines a real and permanent individual identity, sustaining the impermanent phenomena; concepts such as Buddha-nature are found in the Mahayana lineage, and of an ultimate reality in dzogchen tradition, for instance in Dolpopa[25] and Longchenpa. [26] Although Buddhists criticize the immutable ātman of Hinduism, some Buddhist schools problematized the notion of an individual personhood; even among early ones, such as the Pudgala view, it was approached implicitly in questions such as "who is the bearer of the bundle? He thus concludes that the idea of the self is not dependent on any physical thing, and that the soul should not be seen in relative terms, but as a primary given, a substance. “When you're in the clutches of a drinking problem you don't really sit around thinking, I should really knock this shit off and go get my Eastern philosophy on. Though each line is concerned with finding the right path to follow, the methodology and teachings of the philosophers from either line of thinking has been distinct and different. Both Western and Eastern civilizations have been occupied with self-knowledge and underscored its importance particularly citing the paradoxical combination of immediate availability and profound obscurity involved in its pursuit. Mastering the self requires strength." The question of personal identity then becomes a matter of characterizing the loose cohesion of one's personal experience. 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